nonblocking - Why is CPU binding better for blocking I / O, and I / O binding is better for non blocking I / O

I have been told that for I/O bound applications, non blocking I/O would be better. For CPU bound applications, blocking I/O is much better. I could not find the reason for such a statement. Tried google, but few articles just touches the topic with not much details. Can someone provide the deep depth reason for it?

With this, I want to clear myself with what are the short coming of non blocking I/O as well.

After going through another thread here,a reason I could relate was out was if the I/O process is heavy enough then only we can see significant performance improvements using non blocking I/O. It also states that if the number of I/O operations is large(a typical web application scenario) where there are many requests looking out for I/O requests, then also we see significant improvements using non blocking I/O.

Thus my questions boil down to the following list:

  1. In case of a CPU intensive applications, is it better to start a threadpool(or executionContext of scala) and divide the work between the threads of the threadpool.(I guess it has definitely an advantage over spawning your own threads and dividing the work manually. Also using asyn concepts of future, even CPU intensive work can be returned using callbacks hence avoiding the issues related to blocking of multi threading?). Also if there is a I/O which is fast enough, then do the I/O using blocking principles on the threads of thread pool itself. Am I right?

  2. What are actually short comings or overheads of using a non blocking I/O technically? Why we don't see much performance gains of using non blocking I/O if the I/O is fast enough or if there are very less I/O operations required? Eventually it is the OS which is handling I/O's. Irrespective of whether the number of I/O's are large or small, let OS handle that pain. What makes the difference here.

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